Source code for grid2op.simulator.simulator

# Copyright (c) 2019-2022, RTE (
# See AUTHORS.txt
# This Source Code Form is subject to the terms of the Mozilla Public License, version 2.0.
# If a copy of the Mozilla Public License, version 2.0 was not distributed with this file,
# you can obtain one at
# SPDX-License-Identifier: MPL-2.0
# This file is part of Grid2Op, Grid2Op a testbed platform to model sequential decision making in power systems.
import copy
from typing import Optional, Tuple
import numpy as np
import os
from scipy.optimize import minimize
from scipy.optimize import LinearConstraint

from grid2op.dtypes import dt_float
from grid2op.Environment import BaseEnv
from grid2op.Action import BaseAction
from grid2op.Backend import Backend
from grid2op.Observation.baseObservation import BaseObservation
from grid2op.Observation.highresSimCounter import HighResSimCounter
from grid2op.Exceptions import SimulatorError, InvalidRedispatching

[docs]class Simulator(object): """This class represents a "simulator". It allows to check the impact on this or that on th powergrid, quite like what human operators have at their disposal in control rooms. It behaves similarly to `env.step(...)` or `obs.simulate(...)` with a few key differences: - you can "chain" the call to simulator: `simulator.predict(...).predict(...).predict(...)` - it does not take into account the "time": no cooldown on lines nor substation, storage "state of charge" (energy) does not decrease when you use them - no automatic line disconnection: lines are not disconnected when they are above their limit - no opponent will act on the grid Please see the documentation for usage examples. """
[docs] def __init__( self, backend: Optional[Backend], env: Optional[BaseEnv] = None, tol_redisp=1e-6, _highres_sim_counter: Optional[HighResSimCounter] =None ): # backend should be initiliazed ! if backend is not None: if not isinstance(backend, Backend): raise SimulatorError( f'The "backend" argument should be an object ' f'of type "Backend" you provided {backend}' ) if env is not None: raise SimulatorError( "When building a simulator with a grid2op backend " 'make sure you set the kwarg "env=None"' ) if backend._can_be_copied: self.backend: Backend = backend.copy() else: raise SimulatorError("Impossible to make a Simulator when you " "cannot copy the backend.") else: if env is None: raise SimulatorError( "If you want to build a simulator with a blank / None " 'backend you should provide an environment (kwargs "env")' ) if not isinstance(env, BaseEnv): raise SimulatorError( f"Make sure the environment you provided is " f"a grid2op Environment (an object of a type " f"inheriting from BaseEnv" ) if env.backend._can_be_copied: self.backend = env.backend.copy() else: raise SimulatorError("Impossible to make a Simulator when you " "cannot copy the backend of the environment.") self.current_obs: BaseObservation = None self._converged: Optional[bool] = None self._error: Optional[Exception] = None self._tol_redisp: float = tol_redisp if _highres_sim_counter is not None: self._highres_sim_counter = _highres_sim_counter else: self._highres_sim_counter = HighResSimCounter()
@property def converged(self) -> bool: """ Returns ------- bool Whether or not the powerflow has converged """ return self._converged @converged.setter def converged(self, values): raise SimulatorError("Cannot set this property.")
[docs] def copy(self) -> "Simulator": """Allows to perform a (deep) copy of the simulator. Returns ------- Simulator A (deep) copy of the simulator you want to copy. Raises ------ SimulatorError In case the simulator is not initialized. """ if self.current_obs is None: raise SimulatorError( "Impossible to copy a non initialized Simulator. " "Have you used `simulator.set_state(obs, ...)` with a valid observation before ?" ) res = copy.copy(self) res.backend = res.backend.copy() res.current_obs = res.current_obs.copy() # do not copy this ! res._highres_sim_counter = self._highres_sim_counter return res
[docs] def change_backend(self, backend: Backend): """You can use this function in case you want to change the "solver" use to perform the computation. For example, you could use a machine learning based model to do the computation (to accelerate them), provided that you have at your disposal such an algorithm. .. warning:: The backend you pass as argument should be initialized with the same grid as the one currently in use. Notes ----- Once changed, all the "simulator" that "derived" from this simulator will use the same backend types. Parameters ---------- backend : Backend Another grid2op backend you can use to perform the computation. Raises ------ SimulatorError When you do not pass a correct backend. """ if not isinstance(backend, Backend): raise SimulatorError( "when using change_backend function, the backend should" " be an object (an not a class) of type backend" ) self.backend.close() self.backend = backend.copy() # backend_class.init_grid(type(self.backend)) self.set_state(obs=self.current_obs)
[docs] def change_backend_type(self, backend_type: type, grid_path: os.PathLike, **kwargs): """It allows to change the type of the backend used Parameters ---------- backend_type : type The new backend type grid_path : os.PathLike The path from where to load the powergrid kwargs: Extra arguments used to build the backend. Notes ----- Once changed, all the "simulator" that "derived" from this simulator will use the same backend types. Raises ------ SimulatorError if something went wrong (eg you do not pass a type, your type does not inherit from Backend, the file located at `grid_path` does not exists etc.) """ if not isinstance(backend_type, type): raise SimulatorError( "when using change_backend_type function, the backend_type should" " be a class an not an object" ) if not issubclass(backend_type, Backend): raise SimulatorError( "when using change_backend_type function, the backend_type should" " be subtype of class Backend" ) if not os.path.exists(grid_path): raise SimulatorError( f'the supposed grid path "{grid_path}" does not exists' ) if not os.path.isfile(grid_path): raise SimulatorError(f'the supposed grid path "{grid_path}" if not a file') if backend_type._IS_INIT: backend_type_init = backend_type else: backend_type_init= backend_type.init_grid(type(self.backend)) tmp_backend = backend_type_init(**kwargs) # load a forecasted grid if there are any path_env, grid_name_with_ext = os.path.split(grid_path) grid_name, ext = os.path.splitext(grid_name_with_ext) grid_forecast_name = f"{grid_name}_forecast.{ext}" if os.path.exists(os.path.join(path_env, grid_forecast_name)): grid_path_loaded = os.path.join(path_env, grid_forecast_name) else: grid_path_loaded = grid_path tmp_backend.load_grid(grid_path_loaded) tmp_backend.assert_grid_correct() tmp_backend.runpf() tmp_backend.assert_grid_correct_after_powerflow() tmp_backend.set_thermal_limit(self.backend.get_thermal_limit()) self.backend.close() self.backend = tmp_backend self.set_state(obs=self.current_obs)
[docs] def set_state( self, obs: Optional[BaseObservation] = None, do_powerflow: bool = True, new_gen_p: np.ndarray = None, new_gen_v: np.ndarray = None, new_load_p: np.ndarray = None, new_load_q: np.ndarray = None, update_thermal_limit: bool = True, ): """Set the state of the simulator to a given state described by an observation (and optionally some new loads and generation) Parameters ---------- obs : Optional[BaseObservation], optional The observation to get the state from, by default None do_powerflow : bool, optional Whether to use the underlying backend to get a consistent state after this modification or not, by default True new_gen_p : np.ndarray, optional new generator active setpoint, by default None new_gen_v : np.ndarray, optional new generator voltage setpoint, by default None new_load_p : np.ndarray, optional new load active consumption, by default None new_load_q : np.ndarray, optional new load reactive consumption, by default None update_thermal_limit: bool, optional Do you update the thermal limit of the backend (we recommend to leave it to `True` otherwise some bugs can appear such as Raises ------ SimulatorError In case the current simulator is not initialized. """ if obs is not None: self.current_obs = obs.copy() if self.current_obs is None: raise SimulatorError( "The simulator is not initialized. Have you used `simulator.set_state(obs, ...)` with a valid observation before ?" ) # you cannot use "simulate" of the observation in this class self.current_obs._obs_env = None self.current_obs._forecasted_inj = [] self.current_obs._forecasted_grid = [] # udpate the new state if needed if new_load_p is not None: self.current_obs.load_p[:] = new_load_p if new_load_q is not None: self.current_obs.load_q[:] = new_load_q if new_gen_p is not None: self.current_obs.gen_p[:] = new_gen_p if new_gen_v is not None: self.current_obs.gen_v[:] = new_gen_v self._converged = None self.error = None self.backend.update_from_obs(self.current_obs, force_update=True) if update_thermal_limit: self.backend.update_thermal_limit_from_vect(self.current_obs.thermal_limit) if do_powerflow: self._do_powerflow()
def _do_powerflow(self): self._highres_sim_counter.add_one() self._converged, self._error = self.backend.runpf() def _update_obs(self): if self._converged: self.current_obs._update_attr_backend(self.backend) else: self.current_obs.set_game_over() def _adjust_controlable_gen( self, new_gen_p: np.ndarray, target_dispatch: np.ndarray, sum_target: float ) -> Optional[float]: nb_dispatchable = self.current_obs.gen_redispatchable.sum() # which generators needs to be "optimized" -> the one where # the target function matter gen_in_target = target_dispatch[self.current_obs.gen_redispatchable] != 0.0 # compute the upper / lower bounds for the generators dispatchable = new_gen_p[self.current_obs.gen_redispatchable] val_min = ( self.current_obs.gen_pmin[self.current_obs.gen_redispatchable] - dispatchable ) val_max = ( self.current_obs.gen_pmax[self.current_obs.gen_redispatchable] - dispatchable ) # define the target function (things that will be minimized) target_dispatch_redisp = target_dispatch[self.current_obs.gen_redispatchable] coeffs = 1.0 / ( self.current_obs.gen_max_ramp_up + self.current_obs.gen_max_ramp_down + self._tol_redisp ) weights = np.ones(nb_dispatchable) * coeffs[self.current_obs.gen_redispatchable] weights /= weights.sum() scale_objective = max(0.5 * np.abs(target_dispatch_redisp).sum() ** 2, 1.0) scale_objective = np.round(scale_objective, decimals=4) tmp_zeros = np.zeros((1, nb_dispatchable), dtype=float) # wrap everything into the proper scipy form def target(actual_dispatchable): # define my real objective quad_ = ( 1e2 * ( actual_dispatchable[gen_in_target] - target_dispatch_redisp[gen_in_target] ) ** 2 ) coeffs_quads = weights[gen_in_target] * quad_ coeffs_quads_const = coeffs_quads.sum() coeffs_quads_const /= scale_objective # scaling the function coeffs_quads_const += 1e-2 * (actual_dispatchable**2 * weights).sum() return coeffs_quads_const def jac(actual_dispatchable): res_jac = 1.0 * tmp_zeros res_jac[0, gen_in_target] = ( 1e2 * 2.0 * weights[gen_in_target] * ( actual_dispatchable[gen_in_target] - target_dispatch_redisp[gen_in_target] ) ) res_jac /= scale_objective # scaling the function res_jac += 2e-2 * actual_dispatchable * weights return res_jac mat_sum_ok = np.ones((1, nb_dispatchable)) equality_const = LinearConstraint( mat_sum_ok, sum_target - self._tol_redisp, sum_target + self._tol_redisp ) ineq_const = LinearConstraint(np.eye(nb_dispatchable), lb=val_min, ub=val_max) # objective function def f(init): this_res = minimize( target, init, method="SLSQP", constraints=[equality_const, ineq_const], options={ "eps": self._tol_redisp, "ftol": self._tol_redisp, "disp": False, }, jac=jac, ) return this_res # choose a good initial point (close to the solution) # the idea here is to chose a initial point that would be close to the # desired solution (split the (sum of the) dispatch to the available generators) x0 = 1.0 * target_dispatch_redisp can_adjust = x0 == 0.0 if (can_adjust).any(): init_sum = x0.sum() denom_adjust = (1.0 / weights[can_adjust]).sum() if denom_adjust <= 1e-2: # i don't want to divide by something too cloose to 0. denom_adjust = 1.0 x0[can_adjust] = -init_sum / (weights[can_adjust] * denom_adjust) res = f(x0) if res.success: return res.x else: return None def _amount_curtailed( self, act: BaseAction, new_gen_p: np.ndarray ) -> Tuple[np.ndarray, float]: curt_vect = 1.0 * act.curtail curt_vect[curt_vect == -1.0] = 1.0 limit_curtail = curt_vect * act.gen_pmax curtailed = np.maximum(new_gen_p - limit_curtail, 0.0) curtailed[~act.gen_renewable] = 0.0 amount_curtail = curtailed.sum() new_gen_p_after_curtail = 1.0 * new_gen_p new_gen_p_after_curtail -= curtailed return new_gen_p_after_curtail, amount_curtail def _amount_storage(self, act: BaseAction) -> Tuple[float, np.ndarray]: storage_act = 1.0 * act.storage_p res = self.current_obs.storage_power_target.sum() current_charge = 1.0 * self.current_obs.storage_charge storage_power = np.zeros(act.n_storage) if np.all(np.abs(storage_act) <= self._tol_redisp): return -res, storage_power, current_charge coeff_p_to_E = ( self.current_obs.delta_time / 60.0 ) # obs.delta_time is in minutes # convert power (action to energy) storage_act_E = storage_act * coeff_p_to_E # take into account the efficiencies do_charge = storage_act_E < 0.0 do_discharge = storage_act_E > 0.0 storage_act_E[do_charge] /= act.storage_charging_efficiency[do_charge] storage_act_E[do_discharge] *= act.storage_discharging_efficiency[do_discharge] # make sure we don't go over / above Emin / Emax min_down_E = act.storage_Emin - current_charge min_up_E = act.storage_Emax - current_charge storage_act_E = np.minimum(storage_act_E, min_up_E) storage_act_E = np.maximum(storage_act_E, min_down_E) current_charge += storage_act_E # convert back to power (for the observation) the amount the grid got storage_power = storage_act_E / coeff_p_to_E storage_power[do_charge] *= act.storage_charging_efficiency[do_charge] storage_power[do_discharge] /= act.storage_discharging_efficiency[do_discharge] res += storage_power.sum() return -res, storage_power, current_charge def _fix_redisp_curtailment_storage( self, act: BaseAction, new_gen_p: np.ndarray ) -> Tuple[bool, np.ndarray, np.ndarray, np.ndarray, np.ndarray, np.ndarray,]: """This function emulates the "frequency control" of the environment. Its main goal is to ensure that the sum of injected power thanks to redispatching, storage units and curtailment sum to 0. It is a very rough simplification of what happens in the environment. """ new_gen_p_after_curtail, amount_curtail = self._amount_curtailed(act, new_gen_p) amount_storage, storage_power, storage_charge = self._amount_storage(act) sum_target = amount_curtail - amount_storage # TODO ! target_dispatch = self.current_obs.target_dispatch + act.redispatch # if previous setpoint was say -2 and at this step I redispatch of # say + 4 then the real setpoint should be +2 (and not +4) new_vect_redisp = (act.redispatch != 0.0) & ( self.current_obs.target_dispatch == 0.0 ) target_dispatch[new_vect_redisp] += self.current_obs.actual_dispatch[ new_vect_redisp ] if abs(target_dispatch.sum() - sum_target) >= self._tol_redisp: adjust = self._adjust_controlable_gen( new_gen_p_after_curtail, target_dispatch, sum_target ) if adjust is None: return True, None, None, None, None, None else: return ( True, new_gen_p_after_curtail, target_dispatch, adjust, storage_power, storage_charge, ) return False, None, None, None, None, None
[docs] def predict( self, act: BaseAction, new_gen_p: np.ndarray = None, new_gen_v: np.ndarray = None, new_load_p: np.ndarray = None, new_load_q: np.ndarray = None, do_copy: bool = True, ) -> "Simulator": """Predict the state of the grid after a given action has been taken. Parameters ---------- act : BaseAction The action you want to take new_gen_p : np.ndarray, optional the new production active setpoint, by default None new_gen_v : np.ndarray, optional the new production voltage setpoint, by default None new_load_p : np.ndarray, optional the new consumption active values, by default None new_load_q : np.ndarray, optional the new consumption reactive values, by default None do_copy : bool, optional Whether to make a copy or not, by default True Examples --------- A possible example is: .. code-block:: python import grid2op env_name = "l2rpn_case14_sandbox" # or any other name env = grid2op.make(env_name) obs = env.reset() #### later in the code, for example in an Agent: simulator = obs.get_simulator() load_p_stressed = obs.load_p * 1.05 gen_p_stressed = obs.gen_p * 1.05 do_nothing = env.action_space() simulator_stressed = simulator.predict(act=do_nothing, new_gen_p=gen_p_stressed, new_load_p=load_p_stressed) if not simulator_stressed.converged: # the solver fails to find a solution for this action # you are likely to run into trouble if you use that... ... # do something obs_stressed = simulator_stressed.current_obs Returns ------- Simulator The new simulator representing the grid state after the simulation of the action. """ # init the result if do_copy: res = self.copy() else: res = self this_act = act.copy() if new_gen_p is None: new_gen_p = 1.0 * self.current_obs.gen_p res.set_state( obs=None, new_gen_p=new_gen_p, new_gen_v=new_gen_v, new_load_p=new_load_p, new_load_q=new_load_q, do_powerflow=False, ) # "fix" the action for the redispatching / curtailment / storage part ( has_adjusted, new_gen_p_modif, target_dispatch, adjust, storage_power, storage_charge, ) = res._fix_redisp_curtailment_storage(this_act, new_gen_p) if has_adjusted: if target_dispatch is None: res._converged = False res.current_obs.set_game_over() res._error = InvalidRedispatching("") return res redisp_modif = np.zeros(self.current_obs.n_gen) redisp_modif[self.current_obs.gen_redispatchable] = adjust # adjust the proper things in the observation res.current_obs.target_dispatch = target_dispatch this_act.redispatch = redisp_modif res.current_obs.actual_dispatch[:] = redisp_modif this_act._dict_inj["prod_p"] = 1.0 * new_gen_p_modif this_act._modif_inj = True # TODO : curtail, curtailment_limit (in observation) res.current_obs.curtailment[:] = ( new_gen_p - new_gen_p_modif ) / act.gen_pmax res.current_obs.curtailment_limit[:] = act.curtail res.current_obs.curtailment_limit_effective[:] = act.curtail res.current_obs.gen_p_before_curtail[:] = new_gen_p res.current_obs.storage_power[:] = storage_power res.current_obs.storage_charge[:] = storage_charge else: res.current_obs.storage_power[:] = 0.0 res.current_obs.actual_dispatch[:] = 0.0 # apply the action bk_act = res.backend.my_bk_act_class() bk_act += this_act res.backend.apply_action(bk_act) # run the powerflow res._do_powerflow() # update its observation res._update_obs() return res
[docs] def close(self): """close the underlying backend""" if hasattr(self, "backend") and self.backend is not None: self.backend.close() self.backend = None self.current_obs = None self._converged = None self._error = None
def __del__(self): self.close()